Els trets de disseny del llenguatge



Els trets de disseny de Hockett (1960)

Hockett, C. F. (1960). Logical considerations in the study of animal communication. A W. E. Lanyon i W. N. Tavolga (Ed.), Animal sounds and communication. (p. 392–430). American Institute of Biological Sciences.
 
Hockett, C. F. (1977). Logical considerations in the study of animal communication. A The view from language: Selected essays, 1948–1974. (p. 124–162). University of Georgia Press. (Obra original publicada el 1960)
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617
 
Hockett, C. F., i Altmann, S. A. (1968). A note on design features. A T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Animal communication: Techniques of study and results of research. (p. 61–72). Indiana University Press.
 
 
Charles Hockett
Charles F. Hockett (1916–2000)
(Font de la imatge: Gair, J. W. (2006). Charles Francis Hockett 1916–2000: A biographical memoir. Biographical memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. http://www.nasonline.org/publications/biographical-memoirs/memoir-pdfs/hockett-charles.pdf)
Els trets de disseny de Hockett (1960)

Els trets de disseny de Hockett (1960).

Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Canal vocal-auditiu

L’emissor emet el missatge fent servir el tracte vocal.

El receptor rep el missatge a través del sistema auditiu.

«The first design-feature—the ‘vocal-auditory channel’—is perhaps the most obvious. There are systems of communication that use other channels; for example, gesture, the dancing of bees or the courtship ritual of the stickleback. The vocal-auditory channel has the advantage—at least for primates—that it leaves much of the body free for other activities that can be carried on at the same time» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Transmissió irradiada i recepció direccional

El senyal produït per l’emissor es transmet en totes les direccions.

El receptor pot localitzar de quina direcció prové el senyal.

«A linguistic signal can be heard by any auditory system within earshot, and the source can normally be localized by binaural direction-finding» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Transitorietat

El senyal no es manté de forma permanent al llarg del temps.

«The rapid fading of such a signal means that it does not linger for reception at the hearer’s convenience. Animal tracks and spoors, on the other hand, persist for a while; so of course do written records, a product of man’s extremely recent cultural evolution» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Intercanviabilitat

Els individus poden actuar com a emissors i com a receptors.

«In general a speaker of a language can reproduce any linguistic message he can understand, whereas the characteristic courtship motions of the male and female stickleback are different, and neither can act out those appropriate to the other» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Retroalimentació completa

L’emissor pot controlar els seus propis senyals pel fet que els pot escoltar.

«the speaker of a language hears, by total feedback, everything of linguistic relevance in what he himself says. In contrast, the male stickleback does not see the colors of his own eye and belly that are crucial in stimulating the female» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

❯ La retroalimentació en la producció de la parla

Especialització

El sistema és independent d’altres funcions biològiques i només serveix per a la comunicació.

«refers to the fact that the bodily effort and spreading sound waves of speech serve no function except as signals. A dog, panting with his tongue hanging out, is performing a biologically essential activity, since this is how dogs cool themselves off and maintain the proper body temperature. The panting dog incidentally produces sound, and thereby may inform other dogs (or humans) as to where he is and how he feels. But this transmission of information is strictly a side effect» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Semanticitat

Els missatges tenen un significat estable que no varia.

«In language … a message triggers the particular result it does because there are relatively fixed associations between elements in messages (e.g., words) and recurrent features or situations of the world around us. For example, the English word ‘salt’ means salt, not sugar or pepper» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Arbitrarietat

No existeix una relació directa entre el senyal i el seu referent.

«In a semantic communicative system the ties between meaningful message elements and their meanings can be arbitrary or nonarbitrary. In language the ties are arbitrary. The word ‘salt’ is not salty nor granular; ‘dog’ is not ‘canine’; ‘whale’ is a small word for a large object; ‘microorganism’ is the reverse. A picture, on the other hand, looks like what it is a picture of. A bee dances faster if the source of nectar she is reporting is closer, and slower if it is farther away» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

❯ El signe lingüístic

Caràcter discret

Els senyals es poden segmentar en unitats menors que no són graduals.

«Human vocal organs can produce a huge variety of sound. But in any one language only a relatively small set of ranges of sound is used, and the differences between these ranges are functionally absolute. The English words ‘pin’ and ‘bin’ are different to the ear only at one point. If a speaker produces a syllable that deviates from the normal pronunciation of ‘pin’ in the direction of that of ‘bin,’ he is not producing still a third word, but just saying ‘pin’ (or perhaps ‘bin’) in a noisy way. The hearer compensates if he can, on the basis of context, or else fails to understand. This feature of ‘discreteness’ in the elementary signaling units of language contrasts with the use of sound effects by way of vocal gesture. There is an effectively continuous scale of degrees to which one may rise his voice as in anger, or lower it to signal confidentiality» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

❯ Segmentació i substitució

Desplaçament

El referent del senyal no ha d’estar immediatament present en el temps o en l’espai.

«Man is apparently almost unique in being able to talk about things that are remote in space or time (or both) from where the talking goes on» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Productivitat

El sistema permet crear missatges nous a partir d’elements ja existents.

«If a gibbon makes any vocal sound at all, it is one or an other of a small finite repertory of familiar calls. The gibbon call system can be characterized as closed. Language is open, or ‘productive,’ in the sense that one can coin new utterances by putting together pieces familiar from old utterances, assembling them by patterns of arrangement also familiar in old utterances» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Transmissió tradicional

El sistema s’aprèn dels individus que l’han fet servir anteriorment.

«Human genes carry the capacity to acquire a language, and probably also a strong drive toward such acquisition, but the detailed conventions of any one language are transmitted extragenetically by learning and teaching» (p. 90).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Dualitat d’estructuració

Sistema de dos nivells.

Unitats sense significat que es combinen per formar unitats majors amb significat.

«The meaningful elements in any language—«words» in everyday parlance, «morphemes» to the linguist—constitute an enormous stock. Yet they are represented by small arrangements of a relatively very small stock of distinguishable sounds which are in themselves wholly meaningless. This «duality of patterning» is illustrated by the English words «tack,» «cat» and «act.» They are totally distinct as to meaning, and yet are composed of just three basic meaningless sounds in different permutations. Few animal communicative systems share this design-feature of language—none among the other hominoids, and perhaps none at all» (p. 90–92).
 
Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

❯ La doble articulació del llenguatge

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Els trets de Thorpe (1972)

Thorpe, W. H. (1972). The comparison of vocal communication in animals and man. A R. A. Hinde (Ed.), Non verbal communication. (p. 27–47). Cambridge University Press.
 
 
William Thorpe
William H. Thorpe (1902–1986)
(Font de la imatge: Hinde, R. A. (1987). William Homan Thorpe, 1 April 1902 – 7 April 1986. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 33, 620–639. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbm.1987.0022)

Prevaricació

Capacitat d’enganyar o de parlar sense sentit de manera intencionada.

«This connotes the ability to lie or talk nonsense with deliberate intent. It is highly characteristic of the human species and hardly found at all in animals. Possible exceptions occur in the play of some mammals and a few birds, where we see what appear to be gestures, feints, and ruses designed to mislead» (p. 33).
 
Thorpe, W. H. (1972). The comparison of vocal communication in animals and man. A R. A. Hinde (Ed.), Non verbal communication. (p. 27–47). Cambridge University Press.

Reflexivitat

Capacitat de referir-se al sistema de comunicació com a tal.

Funció metalingüística.

«Reflectiveness or reflexiveness simply indicates the ability to communicate about the communication system itself. This is undoubtedly peculiar to human speech and not found anywhere else, as far as we know, in the animal kingdom» (p. 33).
 
Thorpe, W. H. (1972). The comparison of vocal communication in animals and man. A R. A. Hinde (Ed.), Non verbal communication. (p. 27–47). Cambridge University Press.

❯ Les funcions del llenguatge

Capacitat d’aprenentatge

En anglès, learnability.

El parlant d’una llengua en pot aprendre una altra.

«This implies that the speaker of one language can learn another language. This is most obviously true for human beings; for there is no known human language which cannot be learnt by all normal members of the human race. It is much more difficult to decide how to evaluate this in animals. Certainly animals can learn new signals and the meaning of new signals; and learning plays a vital part in many communicative systems of birds and mammals. In birds, of course, ‘imitativeness’, i.e. the ability and tendency to imitate the sounds produced by congeneric associates (or foster parents, as in mynahs) without specific reward, is an outstandingly important feature » (p. 33–34).
 
Thorpe, W. H. (1972). The comparison of vocal communication in animals and man. A R. A. Hinde (Ed.), Non verbal communication. (p. 27–47). Cambridge University Press.
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Les característiques del llenguatge

La comparació entre els trets de disseny presents en els sistemes comunicatius d’altres espècies i els que són propis de la comunicació verbal humana permet establir les característiques específiques del llenguatge.

  «Danza de la abeja Canto de la alondra de la pradera occidental Llamadas del gibón Lenguaje
1. Canal auditivo-vocal No
2. Transmisión irradiada y recepción direccional
3. Desvanecimiento rápido (transitoriedad) ? Sí repetido
4. Intercambiabilidad Limitada ?
5. Retroalimentación total ?
6. Especialización ?
7. Semanticidad En parte
8. Arbitrariedad No Sí, si es semántica
9. Carácter discreto No ?
10. Desplazamiento Sí, siempre ? No Sí, a menudo
11. Productividad ? No
12. Transmisión tradicional Probablemente no ? ?
13. Dualidad de estructuración No ? No Sí»

Caracterització dels trets de disseny d’alguns sistemes de comunicació.

Demers, R. A. (1992). Lingüística y comunicación animal (J. Llisterri, Trad.). A F. J. Newmeyer (Ed.), Panorama de la lingüística moderna de la Universidad de Cambridge: Vol. III. El lenguaje: aspectos psicológicos y biológicos (p. 361–384). Visor. (Obra original publicada el 1988)

Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24940617

Discret i composicional

Discret: segmentable en unitats petites que formen unitats majors i que es poden recombinar.

❯ Segmentació i substitució

Composicional: el significat de les expressions ve donat pel significat de les seves parts constituents i per les relacions gramaticals que mantenen entre si.

❯ La composicionalitat del significat

Iŀlimitat (productiu)

Possibilitat de formar un nombre infinit d’enunciats a partir d’un nombre finit d’unitats.

❯ La doble articulació del llenguatge

La recursivitat

«És una propietat formal present a totes les llengües que permet la reiteració, a través de la coordinació o de la subordinació, d’una mateixa construcció. La recursivitat fa que no existeixi «la frase més llarga» i, doncs, que el nombre de frases de qualsevol llengua sigui infinit. És la base de la productivitat, que és la propietat que tenen els sistemes de comunicació que permeten fer missatges nous indefinidament. La productivitat, d’altra banda, es manifesta en la creativitat, característica de l’ús normal del llenguatge» (p. 300).
 
Tuson, J. (Dir.). (2000). Diccionari de lingüística. Biblograf.
Jesus Tuson
Jesús Tuson (1939–2017)
(Font de la imatge: Universitat de Barcelona. (2017, 23 d’octubre). Acte en record del catedràtic Jesús Tuson [Nota de premsa]. https://www.ub.edu/web/ub/ca/menu_eines/noticies/2017/10/039.html)
Oració → Sintagma Nominal + Sintagma Verbal
Sintagma Verbal → Verb + Oració
 
La Maria diu que en Joan creia que sabia a qui havien aconsellat que confessés que havia sentit que aquells periodistes pretenien que…
Tuson, J. (Dir.). (2000). Diccionari de lingüística. Biblograf.
El Joan m’ha dit que la Maria vindrà
El Joan m’ha dit que en Pere pensa que la Maria vindrà
El Joan m’ha dit que en Pere pensa que en Lluís considera que la Maria vindrà
El Joan m’ha dit que en Pere pensa que en Lluís considera que la Laura creu que la Maria vindrà
Em sembla que el Joan m’ha dit que en Pere pensa que en Lluís considera que la Laura creu que la Maria vindrà
 
El gos del veí és molt inteŀligent
El gos del veí del cosí és molt inteŀligent
El gos del veí del cosí del pare és molt inteŀligent
El gos del veí del cosí del pare de l’amic és molt inteŀligent
El gos del veí del cosí del pare de l’amic del germà és molt inteŀligent
El gos del veí del cosí del pare de l’amic del germà de l’avi és molt inteŀligent
Salmons, I. (2021–2022). Introducció a la lingüística: conceptes bàsics [Document en PowerPoint]. Campus Virtual, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
Recursivitat

lolPhonology. (2018, 13 de juny). I think you know someone who knows someone who knows someone who will like this [Imatge adjunta] [Actualització d’estat]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/lolphonology/posts/2096117043750108

«All approaches agree that a core property of FLN [Faculty of Language - narrow sense] is recursion, attributed to narrow syntax in the conception just outlined. FLN takes a finite set of elements and yields a potentially infinite array of discrete expressions. This capacity of FLN yields discrete infinity (a property that also characterizes the natural numbers). … The core property of discrete infinity is intuitively familiar to every language user. Sentences are built up of discrete units: There are 6-word sentences and 7-word sentences, but no 6.5-word sentences. There is no longest sentence (any candidate sentence can be trumped by, for example, embedding it in ‘Mary thinks that…’), and there is no non-arbitrary upper bound to sentence length. In these respects, language is directly analogous to the natural numbers (see below). At a minimum, then, FLN includes the capacity of recursion. There are many organism-internal factors, outside FLN or FLB [Faculty of Language - broad sense], that impose practical limits on the usage of the system» (p. 1571).
«… one issue that many regard as lying at the heart of language: its capacity for limitless expressive power, captured by the notion of discrete infinity. It seems relatively clear, after nearly a century of intensive research on animal communication, that no species other than humans has a comparable capacity to recombine meaningful units into an unlimited variety of larger structures, each differing systematically in meaning» (p. 1576).
 
Hauser, M. D., Chomsky, N., i Fitch, W. T. (2002). The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science, 298(5598), 1569–1579. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.298.5598.1569
(Font de la imatge: Germánico. (2008, 9 de desembre). Mentes morales (entrevista a Marc D. Hauser). La nueva Ilustración Evolucionista / The new Evolutionary Enlightenment. https://ilevolucionista.blogspot.com/2008/12/mentes-morales-entrevista-marc-d-hauser.html)
(Font de la imatge: Department of Linguistics and Philosophy. (s. d.). Noam Chomsky. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. https://linguistics.mit.edu/user/chomsky/)
(Font de la imatge: Fitch, T. (2022). Tecumseh Fitch – Academic Website. Universität Wien. https://homepage.univie.ac.at/tecumseh.fitch/about.html)

Lliure d’estímul (creatiu)

El llenguatge serveix per expressar idees noves i comunicar missatges nous.

Ús creatiu del llenguatge: missatges que no s’emeten condicionats pel context i que responen a situacions noves.

El llenguatge pot utilitzar-se sense necessitat d’estímuls externs i serveix per a expressar lliurement el pensament.

«Car c’est une chose bien remarquable, qu’il n’y a point d’hommes si hébétés et si stupides, sans en excepter même les insensés, qu’ils ne soient capables d’arranger ensemble diverses paroles, et d’en composer un discours par lequel ils fassent entendre leurs pensées ; et qu’au contraire, il n’y a point d’autre animal, tant parfait et tant heureusement né qu’il puisse être, qui fasse le semblable. Ce qui n’arrive pas de ce qu’ils ont faute d’organes : car on voit que les pies et les perroquets peuvent proférer des paroles ainsi que nous, et toutefois ne peuvent parler ainsi que nous, c’est-à-dire, en témoignant qu’ils pensent ce qu’ils disent : au lieu que les hommes qui, étant nés sourds et muets, sont privés des organes qui servent aux autres pour parler, autant ou plus que les bêtes, ont coutume d’inventer d’eux-mêmes quelques signes par lesquels ils se font entendre à ceux qui, étant ordinairement avec eux, ont le loisir d’apprendre leur langue» (p. 94–95).
 
Descartes, R. (1898). Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences. Librairie de la Bibliothèque Nationale. https://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb30328404q (Obra original publicada el 1637)
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Els trets de disseny del llenguatge
Joaquim Llisterri, Departament de Filologia Espanyola, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

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